Pollution of the environment with pesticides is one of the urgent problems of the modern world. In this regard, the need to develop alternative methods of protection and implementation of insecticides of plant origin is of great importance. Their advantage is the absence of harmful effects on the soil and cultivated plants with a sufficiently high toxicity to their pests. Their use for processing field crops is less dangerous for human health and the environment. Phytopesticides perfectly absorbed by plants and soil, providing no beneficial effect.
The purpose of the technology: the main purpose of phytopesticides is to help in the fight against pests and diseases using a natural method that does not harm the environment, and without the use of chemical pesticides. They do not affect the surrounding flora and fauna and preserve biological organisms in the soil.Phytopesticides mostly made from plants, including: the stalk of potato, onion or tomato, as well as extracts from garlic, pepper, dandelion, wormwood and dope. Other biological pesticides can be produced from ash or soap. Phytopesticides can be stored up to one year. The technology has great environmental benefits, and in the context of climate change will be obvious and great economic benefits, as this technology is not expensive and the main costs are mainly associated with the collection and drying of plants to create phytopesticides.
The training video shot in the framework of the CAMP4ASB project shows several ways to prepare simple solutions and preparations for the fight against insects and plant diseases from available plants (walnut leaves, garlic, capsicum, citrus skins, onion husks, as well as ash). The technology of preparation of phytopesticides l the video shows the agronomist, employee of the Youth Ecological Center, candidate of agricultural Sciences Rustam Kalandarov. Here are a few recipes for cooking phytopesticides:
Chilli pepper. 1 kg of fruits of bitter varieties of pepper is cut and boiled for 1 hour in 10 liters of water in a closed enamel bowl, then insist for two days. After that, pepper rubbed, squeezed, and the decoction filtered. For control of aphids, thrips 0.5 liters of concentrate is diluted to 10 liters by adding 40 g of soap.
Walnut. Infusion of its leaves is recommended against the Colorado potato beetle. To do this, use fallen leaves. They are harvested mainly in autumn and stored in dry ventilated areas. For 3 - 4 weeks before the appearance of beetles leaves soaked in water at the rate of 2-3 kg per 10 liters of water. Before use infusion 2 times filter. A decoction of fresh walnut leaves is also recommended against the moth of fruit trees.
Garlic. 500 g garlic finely cut, ground in a mortar, put in a 3-liter jar, pour water at room temperature and insist in a dark place for 5 days. Then infusion of strain and dilute to 10 l of water take 60 g of a garlic extract and 50 g of soap. Water the plants from above in the evening or in cloudy weather. The second watering is carried out in 3-5 days. Spider mite disappears after the first or second watering, depending on the degree of infection. You can use dry leaves of garlic 100-150 g them soaked in 10 l of water, the infusion is used against aphids and spider mites. For the same purpose, an aqueous infusion of onion scales is used: 200 g of scales insist one day in 10 liters of water.
An infusion of onion peel. Half a bucket of onion peel pour a bucket of hot water, cover, insist for two days, strain and spray.
Tobacco. For the preparation of tobacco broth dried leaves and stems of tobacco or tobacco dust is poured with water (100 g per 1 liter of water) and boil for 30 minutes, adding water as it evaporates. The resulting broth insist day, filtered. Before use, dilute with water 10 to 20 times and add 40 g of soap for every 10 liters of broth. Applied against aphids, thrips. The death of melon aphids reaches 95%.
Dandelion. Leaves to tear, grind, put in a bucket of warm water at the rate of 0.4 kg per 10 liters, insist 2 hours, to use against aphids and mites.
The infusion of tansy. 1 kg collected during flowering and dried tansy pour 10 liters of water and boil on low heat for 15 minutes, cool, drain. For spraying on every 10 liters of water take 100 g of solution, add 40 g of soap and spray.
Infusion of coniferous needles. 2.5 kg of needles of any coniferous pour 10 liters of water, stirring from time to time, insist week, strain, add another 20 liters of water and spray.
Tomatoes. To prepare the decoction, green parts and roots of tomatoes are used for health, which are harvested during the formation of side shoots and after harvesting. Take 4 kg of fresh harvested tomato plants, pour 10 liters of water, insist for 3 to 4 hours, then boil for 30 minutes. on low heat. The cooled broth is filtered, the boiled mass is squeezed out, the broth is poured into a tightly closed bowl, better glass bottles, and stored in a cool place. At the same time, it retains its toxic properties for about a year. The solution is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 liter of broth to 2 liters of water. On 10 liters of a ready solution add 40 g of soap and it is possible to spray.
The infusion of citrus peels. 1 kg citrus crusts soak, mince, pour 3 liters of water, close tightly and insist 5 days in the dark, strain, squeeze, bottle, clog. Use as needed for 100 g of solution per 10 liters of water. Infusion in addition to disinfecting purposes can be used against spider mite and root rot.
Ash. 1 kg of pure sifted ash is stirred in 10 liters of water heated in the sun. The solution is infused 3 - 4 days, stirring occasionally, then, without straining, carefully poured into a clean bucket. A little soap is added to this light solution before spraying, to speed up the preparation of the solution, you can put the container on the fire and boil for at least 30 minutes. After preparation of the solution immediately proceed to spraying. (aphids, sucking pests, against powdery mildew disease).
Lime. Used for dusting between the rows against slugs. Consumption — 50 g per 1 m2. Treatment is carried out late in the evening or early in the morning.
The use of manufactured solutions increases the stability of plants, suppresses outbreaks of plant and insect diseases. Seasonal activities for the processing of useful plants by phytopesticides can be carried out twice a year in spring growing period and the period of fruiting. The cost of drugs is not significant and ranges from 0.1 to 1 USD. for 10 liters of solution.
Taking into account the effectiveness of phytopesticides in increasing crop yields and pest control, as well as the environmental safety of their use, the sustainability of technology in the context of climate change is recommended to extend this practice to farms in the Central Asian region engaged in irrigated agriculture.